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LAB MANUAL. LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS LAB. STATE INSTITUTE OF TECHNICAL TEACHERS TRAINING AND RESEARCH. Select the values of R & C in such away that the condition T >> τ is satisfied. 2. Connect the circuit as shown in Fig 3. Apply 10V p-p Square wave at 1KHz from. 4. pulse and digital circuits lab manual PDF Op-Amps and Linear. Integrated Circuits: Lab. Manual. “Ramkant. Multiplexer and Demultiplexer PDF. XII.
As the phase between these two signals is not changing means that the two signals are on exactly the same frequency. Connect the circuit in Figure 2.
Display the signal waveforms pins 9 and 4 on theoscilloscope; the waveform pin 4 will be referred to as Vo t. Use Graph 1 to plotboth displays. Measure w. Notethat when the VCO is in the free-running mode, both voltages are equal, and are referredto as Vref.
Apply a 1V p-p sinusoid 4 kHz to pin 2; this signal will be referred to as Vi t. Display Vi t and Vo t on the oscilloscope, with Vi t as the trig. Note that the traceswill synchronize only when the PLL is in hold-in tracking condition. The PLL is now in hold-in condition. Measure the dc voltage pin 7; this voltage will be referred to as VD. Increase further the frequency fi, and for each integer-value in kHz setting of fi, measure the phase angle of Vo t w.
Vi t and the dc-voltage VD. Record in table 1. The op-amp has an open-loop gain of A, so that the output signal is much larger than the error voltage. Because of the phase inversion, the output signal is out-of-phase with the input signal. This means that the feed back signal opposes the input signal and the feedback is negative or degenerative. Figure 1. Design the Inverting amplifier with the specifications: Connections are given as per the circuit diagram. By adjusting the amplitude and frequency knobs of the function generator, appropriate input voltage is applied to the inverting input terminal of the Op-Amp.
The output voltage is obtained in the CRO and the input and output voltage waveforms are plotted in a graph sheet. A typical non-inverting amplifier with input resistor R1 and a feedback resistor Rf is shown in the following figure 1. The input voltage is given to the positive terminal.
Amplitude No. What is an op-amp? Give the characteristics of an ideal op-amp. How a non-inverting amplifier can be converted into voltage follower?
What is the necessity of negative feedback? What do you mean by unity gain bandwidth? The gain for each input to the adder depends upon the ratio of the feedback resistance of the circuit to the value of the resistor at that input.
The adder is sometimes called a weighted adder because it provides a means of multiplying each of the inputs by a separate constant before adding them all together. It can be used to add any number of inputs and multiply each input by a different constant.
This makes it useful inapplications like audio mixers. Figure 2. Note that the ability of this amplifier to effectively take the difference between two signals depends on the fact that it uses two pairs of identical resistances. Also note that the signal that is subtracted goes into the negative input to the opamp. Be careful with the term differential. In spite of its similarity to the term differentiation, the differential amplifier does not differentiate its input.
The circuit in the following Figure The Adder and Subtractor circuits are constructed and their functions are verified. Is it possible to construct an adder in non-inverting mode? Why same values of resistors are used in the circuits? Can you construct an Adder just with resistors? Is your subtractor same as Differential amplifier? The differentiator circuit performs the mathematical operation of differentiation. The differentiator may be constructed from a basic inverting amplifier if an input resistor R1 is replaced by a capacitor C1.
Here the negative sign indicates that the output voltage is out of phase with the input signal. A workable differentiator can be designed by implementing the following steps:. Select fa equal to the highest frequency of the input signal to be differentiated. The differentiator is most commonly used in waveshaping circuits to detect high frequency components in an input signal and also as a rateofchange detector in FM modulators.
An input signal that varies in frequency from 10 Hz to about Hz. If a sine wave of 3 V peak at Hz is applied to the differentiator, draw its output waveform. If a sine wave of 2 V peak at Hz is applied to the differentiator, draw its output waveform.
Quantity 1 1 1 1 1 As per design As per design As required. A circuit in which the output voltage waveform is the integral of the input voltage waveform is the integrator.
Such a circuit is obtained by using a basic inverting amplifier configuration if the feedback resistor Rfis replaced by a capacitor Cf. Normally between fa and fb the circuit acts as an integrator. The input signal will be integrated properly if the Time period T of the signal is larger than or equal to Rf Cf. That is, T Rf Cf. In the circuit of figure 2. Determine the output voltage. Differentiator S. What is integrator?
Write the disadvantages of ideal integrator? What is differentiator? What will happen if R1 not present? Write the application of differentiator? Why compensation resistance is needed in differentiator.?
Why integrators are preferred over differentiators in analog comparators? To design and test the operation of Differential amplifier and Schmitt trigger. A Circuit that amplifies the difference between two signals is called a differential amplifier. For differential amplifier, though the circuit is not symmetric, but because of the mismatch, the gain at the output with respect to positive terminal is slightly different in magnitude to that of negative terminal.
Design the Differentiator amplifier having gain of Figure 3. No Name of the Apparatus 1.
Function Generator 2. CRO 3.
Dual RPS 4. Op-Amp 5. Bread Board 6. Resistors 7. Note down the Output Voltage 4. Vary the input Voltages and note down the output voltages.
The Schmitt trigger is a comparator with positive feedback. It converts slowly varying waveforms into square wave. The input voltage is applied to the inverting terminal and the feedback circuit is connected to the non-inverting terminal.
The input voltage triggers the output every time it exceeds certain voltage levels. When Vi is just greater than VUT, the output regenerative switches to - Vsat and remains at this level. Determine the threshold voltages. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram. Set the input voltage as 1Vpp. Measure the amplitude of the output signal. Note down the upper and lower threshold voltages by superimposing the square wave on the input sine wave.
Plot the input and output waveforms. Schmitt Triger. The Wien bridge oscillator is the most commonly used audio frequency oscillator because of its simplicity and stability. Figure shows the Wien bridge oscillator in which Wien bridge circuit is connected between the amplifiers input terminals and the output terminal.
The bridge has a series RC network in one arm and a parallel RC network in the adjoining arm. In the remaining two arms of the bridge, resistors R1 and Rf are connected. The phase angle criterion for oscillation is that the total phase shift around the circuit must be This condition occurs only when the bridge is balanced.
Figure 4. Capacitors 8. Connecting wires and probes. Quantity 2 1 1 1 1 As per design As per design As required. Construct the circuit with the values obtained in the design. Observe the output wave form on an Oscilloscope.
EC8462-Linear Integrated Circuits Lab Manual
Measure the frequency of oscillator and voltage amplitude. Model Graph: A phase-shift oscillator is a linear electronic oscillator circuit that produces a sine wave output. It consists of an inverting amplifie amplifier element such as a transistor or op amp with its output fed back to its input through a phase phase-shift network consisting of resistors and capacitors.
The feedback network 'shifts' the phase of the amplifier output by degrees at the oscillation frequency to give positive feedback feedback. Phase-shift oscillators are often used at audio udio frequency as audio oscillators. Model Graph:. What happens at the output if Rf is changed?
How is phase shift oscillator different from RC phase shift oscillator? What are the applications of phase shift oscillator? How is Wein bridge oscillator different from RC phase shift oscillator? What are the applications of Wein bridge oscillator? What is the condition for the bridge to be balanced? Multivibrators are group of regenerative circuits. They are widely used in timing applications. An electronic circuit that generates square waves or other non-sinusoidal such a rectangular, saw tooth waves is known as a multivibrator.
A multivibrator is a switching circuit, which depends for operation on positive feedback. It is basically a two-stage amplifier with output of one feedback to the input of the other.
Multivibrators are classified as Bistable multivibrator Monostable multivibrator Astable multivibrator. Astable circuits are used to generate square waves. It is also known as free running multivibrator. The circuit has two quasi stable states no stable state. Thus, there is an oscillation between two states and no external signals are required to produce the change in state. In a free running mode, the two states of the multivibrator are momentarily stable and the circuit switches respectively between these two states.
In one state the amplifier output goes to positive saturation level while in the other state it goes into negative saturation. Get the required components and check the condition of them. Switch on the power supply and look at the output with CRO. Measure the width and time period of the output waveform. Look at the voltage across the capacitor, an exponentially rising and falling wave between 5V and 10V is noted. After completing the experiments, reduce the supply to zero potential and disconnect the circuit diagram.
It generates a single pulse of specified duration in response to each external trigger signal. A mono-stable multivibrator exits only one stable state. The circuit remains in a quasistable state for a fixed interval of time and then reverts to its original stable state. An internal trigger signal is generated which produces the transition to the stable state.
Usually, the charging and discharging of a capacitor provides this internal trigger signal. Figure 5. What is a multivibrator? Give the principle of operation of Multivibrators?
What is another name for astable multivibrator? What do you mean by astable multivibrator? Differentiate astable and monostable multivibrator? Give the application of astable multivibrator. An improved filter response can be obtained by using a second order active filter. The high pass filter is the complement of the low pass filter. Thus the high pass filter canbe obtained by interchanging R and C in the circuit of low pass configuration.
EC8462 – LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS
A high pass filterallows only frequencies above a certain bread point to pass through and it terminates the lowfrequency components. The range of frequencies beyond its lower cut off frequency fL is calledstop band. The BPF is the combination of high and low pass filters and this allows a specified range of frequencies to pass through. It has two stop bands in range of frequencies between 0 to fL andbeyond fH. Hence its bandwidth is fL-fH. This filter has a maximum gain at the resonant frequency fr which is defined as.
Transfer function of second order Butterworth LPF as: Design the second order high pass filter at a cut off frequency of 1khz with passband gain of 2.
Design a second order low pass filter at high cutoff frequency of 1kHz. Figure 6. The connections are made as shown in the circuit diagram. The signal which has to be made sine is applied to the RC filter pair circuit with the noninverting terminal. Calculating Gain through the formula and plotting the frequency response characteristics using Semi-log graph sheet and finding out the 3 dB line for fc. What is pass band and stop band?
What has to be done in the circuit, if you want your filter to exactly follow the cut-off frequency? Can a Band pass filter be constructed just by coupling a low pass filter and high pass filter, how?
Why do we draw a line at 3 dB below the peak gain to calculate the pass band of a filter? Make the connections as per the circuit diagram. Switch on the power supply.
LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUIT LAB MANUAL by PRABHU.pdf
Give voltage to the IC. Note the sequence of LED blinking. The input to a digital to analog converter is a binary signal available in parallel form. These digital signals are available at the output of the latches or registers and correspond to logic 0 and logic 1. These voltages are not directly applied to the converter but are used to operate digitally controlled switches. The switch is put into two positions depending on the digital signal 1 or 0, which connect the fixed voltages.
Let us suppose we want to convert the binary form the processing unit to a 0 to 3 volts output. We must first set up a truth table for all possible situations. Switch ON the power supply. Set the digital input by using switches SW1 to SW8 4. The output analog equivalent for the digital data can be viewed from pin6 5. Verify the analog output theoretically by sing the formula given below 6. Figure 7. To design, construct and test the astable multivibrator and monostable multivibrator using IC IC is a combination of linear comparators and digital flip flops.
The output FF circuit is brought out through an amplifier stage.
The FF output is also give to a transistor to discharge a timing capacitor. When IC is to be configured as an astable multivibrator, both the trigger and threshold inputs pins 2 and 6 to the two comparators are connected together and to the external capacitor. The capacitor charges toward the supply voltage through the two resistors, R1 and R2. The discharge pin 7 connected to the internal transistor is connected to the junction of those two resistors.
Monostable operation:. When a negative-going trigger pulse is applied to the trigger input, the threshold on the lower comparator is exceeded.
The lower comparator, therefore, sets the flip-flop. That causes T1 to cut off, acting as an open circuit. The setting of the flip-flop also causes a positive-going output level which is the beginning of the output timing pulse. The capacitor now begins to charge through the external resistor. That terminates the output pulse which switches back to zero.
At this time, T1 again conducts thereby discharging the capacitor.Roy Choudhary, Sheil B. Note down the output voltage on the CRO. Can a Band pass filter be constructed just by coupling a low pass filter and high pass filter, how?
LINEAR OP-AMP CIRCUITS
Mohammed Rafi Ahmed Shareef. Ricardo Alan Vargas Gamboa. Viva Questions: