# DESIGN CAPACITY TABLES FOR STRUCTURAL STEEL PDF

their “Design Capacity Tables” text and format in the development of various parts The “Design Capacity Tables for Structural Steel” (DCT) suite of publications. 𝗣𝗗𝗙 | Structural steel is commonly used as construction material. In designing structural steel, practitioners typically use the steel section properties table to. Design Capacity Tables for Structural Steel Hollow ichwarmaorourbia.ga - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or view presentation slides online.

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Design Capacity Tables for Structural Steel Hollow Sections - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or view presentation slides online. C. AISC: DESIGN CAPACITY TABLES FOR STRUCTURAL STEEL DCT/02/. + Design Capacity Tables for structural steel. Volume 1: Open sections fifth edition - WB, WC – Grade / (to AS/NZS ). UB, UC – Grade /

Further general information on the availability of the sections listed in the Tables is noted in Section 2. The ERW process allows cold-formed hollow sections to be welded at ambient temperatures without subsequent stress relieving. Such wording may be: CL0 and CL0.

## Design Capacity Tables for Structural Steel Hollow Sections

In practice the tabulated values are affected by rolling tolerances and actual corner shape. The Grade CL0 products provide a more comprehensive range of sections for structural applications and should be commonly specified.

Masses per metre listed are for the sections only. Australian Standard 2. In conjunction with the above structural steel hollow section Standard and grade designations. More detailed information on the strengths and other mechanical properties of these steels can be found in Table 2. The above table shows that higher strengths are developed in Grade CL0 products and higher elongation is attained with Grade CL0 products.

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It is often perceived that CL0 is a new and less readily available grade. As noted above. Apart from higher strength and lighter weight benefits. As noted in Section 2. Grade CL0 by itself may not perform well if the hollow section is bent to a tight radius during fabrication e. Australian Tube Mills ATM have always been at the forefront in utilising higher strength hollow sections both in Australia and internationally.

Experience has shown that Grade CL0 products which possess the CL0 elongation requirements can be adequately formed in these situations. These elongation limits apply to the face from which the tensile test is taken. These and other publications and software can be obtained freely from www. Dual-stocking of grades for a particular section is costly.

Excess straining sometimes produces section failures. If the same section can comply with the requirements of both the commonly specified lower strength grade and the structurally efficient higher strength grade. These properties undergo opposing effects during manufacturing.

This is particularly so for thicker hollow sections. This includes taking account of the enhancement in strength due to cold-forming. Australian Tube Mills are regarded as being innovative in various mill finishes for many years and offer tubular products in the following surface finishes: Non-conforming or unidentified hollow sections must be down-rated to a design yield stress of MPa and a design ultimate strength of MPa.

This situation is highly dependent on the integrity of the supporting material Standards. The other important Standards for structural steel hollow sections include welding. It should be noted that due to manufacturing limitations.

Though AS is a key Standard for the design. It is highly recommended that readers always ensure that they are using current information on the ATM product range. Australian Institute of Steel Construction.

Steel Construction. See Section 1. September Note: Sections may be ordered in other lengths ex-mill rolling subject to ATM length limitations and minimum order requirements. The above calculation method of J and C is extracted from Ref. These properties. J and C are calculated by the traditional methods. Sy and the torsion constant J are the fundamental geometric properties required by design Standards. Ratios and Properties The Tables give standard dimensions and properties for the structural steel hollow sections noted in Sections 2.

For CHS. It should be noted that Clause 5. Ze is then calculated using Clauses 5.

Zey are tabulated. This categorisation provides a measure of the relative importance of yielding and local buckling of the plate elements which make up a section when subject to compression caused by bending. This parameter is based on the section moduli S. These values are dependent on steel grade. N or S respectively. The section form factor kf. Clause 4. Corner Geometry for Determining Section Properties 3. The equations for determining Ze reflect the proportion of the hollow section that is effective in resisting compression in the section caused by flexure.

In Clauses 5. From Table 5. Figure 3. Having evaluated the compactness of a hollow section. Z and is used in the determination of the design section moment capacity qMs. General worked examples for calculating Ze are provided in Section 3. General worked examples for calculating kf are provided in Section 3. The evaluation of kf is also important when designing to the higher tier provisions for members subject to combined actions as noted in Section 8 of AS The form factor kf is defined in Clause 6.

From Table 6. The calculation of kf indicates the degree to which the plate elements which make up the column section will buckle locally before squashing i. From Clause 5. All relevant data are obtained from Table 3. To assist with the design of structural steel hollow sections for fire resistance Section 12 of AS , values of the exposed surface area to mass ratio ksm are presented in Tables 3.

For unprotected steel hollow sections the values of ksm corresponding to four- and three-sided exposure should be taken as those corresponding to Cases 1 and 4 respectively in Figure 3. Tables 3. Within these tables the total available clearance is tabulated to allow designers to select hollow sections with suitable clearance for the type of fit required.

Sections with clearances less than 2. For members requiring the addition of fire protection materials, Ref. It should be noted that ksm is equivalent to E in Ref. Further information and worked examples on fire design to Section 12 of AS can be found in Refs.

Owing to dimensional tolerances permitted within that Standard actual clearances of sections manufactured to this specification will vary marginally from the values tabulated. For tight fits, varying corner radii and internal weld heights can affect telescoping of sections and it is recommended that some form of testing is carried out prior to committing material. Where telescoping over some length is required, additional clearance may be needed to allow for straightness of the section.

Telescoping of SHS and RHS where the female outer has a larger wall thickness requires careful consideration of corner clearance due to the larger corner radii of the thicker section. Typical corner geometry may differ from that used for the calculation of section properties and reference should be made to Australian Tube Mills for further information see contact details at the bottom of the page. Cases of fire exposure considered: Bradford, M.

Proe, D. Thomas, I. Rakic, J. The PAG can be found at www. For Grade CL0: This product is also compliant with AS — Steel tubes and tubulars for ordinary service. TABLE 3. Grey shaded listings are to CL0 which is a non-standard grade - availability is subject to minimum order criteria. Please refer to earlier tables for design values associated with this as a standard grade. Grey shaded listings are to CL0 which is a non-standard grade. See Section 3. See Tables 3. For tight fits it is recommended that some form of testing is carried out prior to committing to material.

CHS is not a precision tube and all dimensions shown in this chart. The configuration of these Nominal Clearances are as shown in the Figure below. Sizes where clearance is shown as 0. This means. Depending on the two members being telescoped. Note that the clearance is the total available difference between member dimensions. The next column lists the closest size Male Inner Member when positioned in the Female Member as noted in the Figure at the bottom right of this page.

Internal weld bead may need to be considered when a closer fit is required. Pipe may need to be fixed against twisting by welding or bolting. Sizes with a clearance less than 2. Where two telescoping sections are being used. Members may need to slide freely inside each other. Press Fit: Select the size of Female or Outer member closest to your requirements from the left hand column.

If a third section is to be used. Where telescoping over some length is required. Based on A and B above. RHS has the obvious advantage that its shape prevents rotation of the section. Varying corner radii and the internal weld bead may need to be considered when a closer fit is required. If a third section is to be used consideration of both clearance and thickness within the size list available may be required. RHS is not a precision tube and all dimensions shown in this chart.

SHS has the obvious advantage that its shape prevents rotation of the section. SHS is not a precision tube and all dimensions shown in this chart.

For simple structural members. From an AS perspective. In first-order analysis. This occurs for both isolated. A first-order elastic analysis with moment amplification cannot be used if bb is greater than 1. These four methods consider the interaction of load and deformation that produce second-order effects. As such. Some further consideration of hand methods for assessing second-order effects and subsequently design actions are noted in the balance of this part of the publication.

If a first-order elastic analysis is carried out then bb is used to amplify the bending moments between the ends of the member Clause 4. The moment amplification factor for a braced member is bb.

Second-order effects. If bb is greater than 1. All of the methods of analysis are discussed in detail in the commentary to AS Ref. Alternatively a second-order elastic analysis in accordance with Appendix E of AS may be used. The moment amplification factor is calculated differently for braced and sway members as explained in the following sub-section.

With respect to AS The methods of analysis recognised by AS are: A first-order elastic analysis alone does not consider second-order effects. These Design Capacity Tables are intended to be used with first-order and second-elastic analysis.

Secondorder effects may be substantial in some frames. The bending moments calculated from a first-order elastic analysis are modified by the moment amplification factor bm which is the greater of bb see Section 4. Clauses 4. If bm is greater than 1. A detailed explanation of the procedure for calculating bs may be Compute Nomb from Clause 4. The design bending moment is given by: The moment amplification factor for a sway member is bs.

Flow Chart for the calculation of the moment amplification factor for a braced member. If a braced member is subject only to end moments then the factor cm is calculated as follows: If the member is subjected to transverse loading. Figure 4. Nomy are required for the calculation of bb and bm.

## SteelConstruction.info

For a specific effective length. Values of Nom are determined from Clause 4. For braced or sway members in frames. No tables relating Nom to effective length are provided in this publication.

Ix or Iy and then simply evaluate the above equation for Nom. Flow Chart for the calculation of the moment amplification factor for a sway member. Axial compression flexural buckling x-axis. Examples 1. Design action effects on isolated braced beam-column Design Data: Braced Beam-Column Determine the design action effects for an isolated braced beam-column which is subject to the design actions from a first-order elastic analysis as noted in Figure 4.

Standards Australia. These tables were rarely used and could be readily calculated by manual methods as noted in the example above. Sway Beam-Column Due to space limitations.

AS Supplement Australian Steel Institute Tables 5. The A series tables in this instance consider the strength limit state. For a specific group of hollow sections. For the beam configuration shown in Figure 5. An example on the use of these tables is given in Section 5. For Tables 5. The design moment capacity for the beam in Figure 5. Examples of the use of these tables are given in Section 5.

Beam configuration for Tables 5.

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For a single-span simply-supported beam subject to uniformly distributed loading see Figure 5. Section 5. FLR is only listed in the strength not serviceability limit state tables A. Formulae for calculating FLR are given in Clause 5. The load at which first yield occurs in the member is given by: As noted in Tables 5. The B series tables in this instance consider the serviceability limit state.

An example of the use of these Tables is given in Section 5. FLR values are given in the A series of Tables 5. For a single-span. If it does. If not. Steps 6 and 7 only work if first yield does not control.

Beam with Central Concentrated Load A beam which is simply-supported has a span of 4. Serviceability Limit State — From Table From Table T5. It can be seen from Table 5. The beam is subjected to nominal. Beam with Uniformly Distributed Load A simply-supported beam of 4 metres span is subjected to the following unfactored uniformly distributed loads: These actions are split into two separate tables — the type A table for bending about the x-axis e.

For RHS bending about the x-axis. FLR values may be used to ensure appropriate spacing of restraints so that the design section moment capacity can be achieved for bending about the x-axis. CHS are not considered in the 5. For illustrative purposes. Nominal beam self weight.

The Tables also provide values of design web bearing capacities. These values provide the basic information necessary for checking shear-bending interaction. Due to SHS being doubly-symmetric. The method for determining the constants C and J is detailed in Section 3. An explanation of torsional effects is provided in Refs. For such sections.

The general theory of torsion established by Saint-Venant is based on uniform torsion. FLR 5. For hollow sections. Hollow sections perform particularly well in torsion and their behaviour under torsional loading is readily analysed by simple procedures. The theory assumes that all cross-sections rotate as a body around the centre of rotation. For bending about the y-axis. For calculating the web area. Dispersion of force through flange.

For the same section range. Check the bearing capacity of the beam which is bending about the x-axis. Web bearing design example Design Data: Design bearing force Design shear force Stiff bearing length From Table 5. In both the interior and end bearing cases. The reduced design shear capacity qVvm is determined in accordance with Clause 5. An example of a check on shear and bending interaction is given in Section 5.

Substituting values 0. Clause 5. These formulae only apply to bearing across the full width of section. Design Data: The design member moment capacity can then be determined as the lesser of: For these sections. Le is determined by: The tabulated values of design member moment capacity qMb are determined in accordance with Clause 5. The design section moment capacity qMsx — see Section 5. CHS and SHS are not included in these tables as they are generally not susceptible to flexural-torsional buckling.

The 5. See Section 5. As the end segments have a smaller effective length and larger moment modification factor. For beam segment 2: The calculated design load at each point is 60 kN and includes an allowance for self weight. In terms of design member moment capacity. Beam and loading configuration for Example 1 Design Data: Higher values of FLR may be obtained if transverse loads are present on the beam segment or if the end moments of the beam segment cause other than uniform bending moment — Clause 5.

The tabulated values of FLR in the 5. The next example considers the above case but without full lateral restraint at the load points making the RHS subject to flexural-torsional buckling. In all such situations. Thus the required section can be read directly from Table 5. It should also be noted that when looking at Table 5. Full lateral restraint is provided at the load points and the supports. Table T5. This means. Where two telescoping sections are being used. Select the size of Female or Outer member closest to your requirements from the left hand column.

CHS is not a precision tube and all dimensions shown in this chart. The configuration of these Nominal Clearances are as shown in the Figure below. Sizes where clearance is shown as 0. Internal weld bead may need to be considered when a closer fit is required. Pipe may need to be fixed against twisting by welding or bolting. Note that the clearance is the total available difference between member dimensions. Press Fit: Based on A and B above. Members may need to slide freely inside each other.

Sizes with a clearance less than 2. Depending on the two members being telescoped. If a third section is to be used. For tight fits it is recommended that some form of testing is carried out prior to committing to material. Where telescoping over some length is required. If a third section is to be used consideration of both clearance and thickness within the size list available may be required.

RHS is not a precision tube and all dimensions shown in this chart. RHS has the obvious advantage that its shape prevents rotation of the section. Varying corner radii and the internal weld bead may need to be considered when a closer fit is required. SHS is not a precision tube and all dimensions shown in this chart. SHS has the obvious advantage that its shape prevents rotation of the section. Secondorder effects may be substantial in some frames. The methods of analysis recognised by AS are: If bb is greater than 1.

All of the methods of analysis are discussed in detail in the commentary to AS Ref. From an AS perspective. A first-order elastic analysis with moment amplification cannot be used if bb is greater than 1. The moment amplification factor is calculated differently for braced and sway members as explained in the following sub-section. Second-order effects. A first-order elastic analysis alone does not consider second-order effects. These Design Capacity Tables are intended to be used with first-order and second-elastic analysis.

If a first-order elastic analysis is carried out then bb is used to amplify the bending moments between the ends of the member Clause 4. These four methods consider the interaction of load and deformation that produce second-order effects. Alternatively a second-order elastic analysis in accordance with Appendix E of AS may be used.

Some further consideration of hand methods for assessing second-order effects and subsequently design actions are noted in the balance of this part of the publication. This occurs for both isolated. The moment amplification factor for a braced member is bb. As such. For simple structural members.

With respect to AS In first-order analysis. If a braced member is subject only to end moments then the factor cm is calculated as follows: Clauses 4. If bm is greater than 1. The design bending moment is given by: A detailed explanation of the procedure for calculating bs may be Compute Nomb from Clause 4. The bending moments calculated from a first-order elastic analysis are modified by the moment amplification factor bm which is the greater of bb see Section 4. The moment amplification factor for a sway member is bs.

If the member is subjected to transverse loading. Figure 4. Flow Chart for the calculation of the moment amplification factor for a braced member. Nomy are required for the calculation of bb and bm.

For braced or sway members in frames. No tables relating Nom to effective length are provided in this publication. For a specific effective length. Ix or Iy and then simply evaluate the above equation for Nom. Values of Nom are determined from Clause 4. Flow Chart for the calculation of the moment amplification factor for a sway member. Braced Beam-Column Determine the design action effects for an isolated braced beam-column which is subject to the design actions from a first-order elastic analysis as noted in Figure 4.

Design action effects on isolated braced beam-column Design Data: Axial compression flexural buckling x-axis. Examples 1. Standards Australia. Australian Steel Institute Sway Beam-Column Due to space limitations..

These tables were rarely used and could be readily calculated by manual methods as noted in the example above. AS Supplement Tables 5. For the beam configuration shown in Figure 5. For a specific group of hollow sections. An example on the use of these tables is given in Section 5.

The design moment capacity for the beam in Figure 5. For a single-span simply-supported beam subject to uniformly distributed loading see Figure 5. The A series tables in this instance consider the strength limit state. For Tables 5. Examples of the use of these tables are given in Section 5. Beam configuration for Tables 5. Formulae for calculating FLR are given in Clause 5. For a single-span. FLR values are given in the A series of Tables 5.

The load at which first yield occurs in the member is given by: As noted in Tables 5. FLR is only listed in the strength not serviceability limit state tables A. The B series tables in this instance consider the serviceability limit state.

Section 5. An example of the use of these Tables is given in Section 5. If not. Steps 6 and 7 only work if first yield does not control. If it does. Beam with Uniformly Distributed Load A simply-supported beam of 4 metres span is subjected to the following unfactored uniformly distributed loads: Beam with Central Concentrated Load A beam which is simply-supported has a span of 4. Serviceability Limit State — From Table 5. From Table T5. It can be seen from Table 5.

The beam is subjected to nominal. For illustrative purposes. Due to SHS being doubly-symmetric. These actions are split into two separate tables — the type A table for bending about the x-axis e.

## (ABN)/ACN (94) 000 973 839

CHS are not considered in the 5. These values provide the basic information necessary for checking shear-bending interaction. FLR values may be used to ensure appropriate spacing of restraints so that the design section moment capacity can be achieved for bending about the x-axis.

Nominal beam self weight. For RHS bending about the x-axis. The Tables also provide values of design web bearing capacities.

The method for determining the constants C and J is detailed in Section 3. The theory assumes that all cross-sections rotate as a body around the centre of rotation. An explanation of torsional effects is provided in Refs. For hollow sections. The general theory of torsion established by Saint-Venant is based on uniform torsion. For such sections. FLR 5. Hollow sections perform particularly well in torsion and their behaviour under torsional loading is readily analysed by simple procedures.

For calculating the web area. For bending about the y-axis. Dispersion of force through flange. In both the interior and end bearing cases. Web bearing design example Design Data: Design bearing force Design shear force Stiff bearing length From Table 5.

## Design capacity tables for structural steel, vol. 2: Hollow sections (PDF)

Check the bearing capacity of the beam which is bending about the x-axis. For the same section range. An example of a check on shear and bending interaction is given in Section 5.

The reduced design shear capacity qVvm is determined in accordance with Clause 5. These formulae only apply to bearing across the full width of section. Substituting values 0. Clause 5. Design Data: The tabulated values of design member moment capacity qMb are determined in accordance with Clause 5.

The 5. Le is determined by: The design section moment capacity qMsx — see Section 5. For these sections. The design member moment capacity can then be determined as the lesser of: CHS and SHS are not included in these tables as they are generally not susceptible to flexural-torsional buckling. The calculated design load at each point is 60 kN and includes an allowance for self weight. Higher values of FLR may be obtained if transverse loads are present on the beam segment or if the end moments of the beam segment cause other than uniform bending moment — Clause 5.

In terms of design member moment capacity. Thus the required section can be read directly from Table 5. See Section 5. Beam and loading configuration for Example 1 Design Data: The tabulated values of FLR in the 5.

In all such situations. As the end segments have a smaller effective length and larger moment modification factor. For beam segment 2: It should also be noted that when looking at Table 5. Full lateral restraint is provided at the load points and the supports.

The next example considers the above case but without full lateral restraint at the load points making the RHS subject to flexural-torsional buckling. This example specifically illustrates the use of the Tables for bending moment and shear design of unrestrained RHS beam sections subject to flexural-torsional buckling CHS and SHS do not generally experience this instability.

The reason for this is due to the effect of the more favourable non-uniform moment distribution offsetting the negative effects of increased effective length. In such situations. For entire beam: End restraint condition Twist restraint factor Load height factor FF i.

An analysis of the effect of increasing effective length on RHS design member moment capacity sees the level of moment capacity reduction being only gradual. Due to the large range of loading configurations and support conditions considered for beams in design. Table T5. March Note: TABLE 5. L1 L2 5. Red shading indicates serviceability loads governed by yielding. L1 L2 6. Bold listings in the table note whether design web bearing yielding or buckling is critical for either Interior or End Bearing.

The form factor kf represents the proportion of the section that is effective in axial compression and is determined from considerations of element slenderness as affected by local buckling.

RHS and SHS are supplemented by graphs of qNc versus Le placed consecutively after the tables for each corresponding grade and section type. The A series tables and graphs for each group of sections are immediately followed by the B series of tables and graphs for the same group.

For RHS only. All loads are assumed to be applied through the centroid of the section. All the Tables for CHS. The column capacity is associated with flexural buckling as torsional buckling is not a common buckling mode for hollow sections in axial compression.

From Clause 6. Design Member Capacity in Axial Compression The design member capacity in axial compression accounts for the effect of overall member buckling for the effective length of the member amongst other factors and it is obtained from Clause 6.

See discussion in Section 3. The design member capacities are determined from Section 6 of AS The effective length depends on the member length L. Table T6. Table 6. Example 2 of Section 4. Effective length factor ke 0. Note that the design member capacity equals the design section capacity i. As such there is the possibility that the first sections being sighted are uneconomical. Assume that for x-axis buckling both ends are pinned rotation free. Example Design a RHS column.

This is summarised in Table T6. In order to select a more optimal section it may be prudent to summarise a few of the initial listings for qNcx and qNcy based on their respective effective lengths. Australian Steel Institute.

CL0 CL0 65 x 35 x 3. CL0 x x CL0 HS x x CL0 x x 9. CL0 x 75 x 6. CL0 x 51 x 6. Refer previous table for notes on steel grade. For sections reduced by penetrations or holes.

It further assumes that there are no eccentricity. Select a suitable RHS member from Tables 2. A tension member with a full perimeter welded connection to a uniformly stiff support is subjected to an axial tension force of kN. The Tables list the design section capacity in tension for Australian Tube Mills structural steel hollow sections. Design a suitable RHS tension member.

Example 1. Section 7 of AS has been used to determine these values. The final choice of section may be influenced by other constraints geometric. The alternatives are: The lesser governing value of qNt 1 and qNt 2 is highlighted in bold type. These terms are defined in Section 7. All relevant design section capacities in bending. These tables also provide reference to the appropriate tables in Sections 5.

Each of these sections consider uniaxial bending about the major principal x-axis. The above description on direction of shear force on RHS is important. The design capacities considered in the 8 Series Tables include: Tables to list design section capacities and references to other tables for checking interaction effects on member capacities.

Section 8. For all cases of combined bending and axial force the designer should first ensure that the appropriate design axial capacity compression or tension is greater than the design axial force i. In every case both the section capacity and the member capacity must be checked.

If there is insufficient restraint to prevent lateral buckling. Tables to list qNs. For specific hollow sections. Tables to list qMsx. Clauses 8. Due to the variable nature of these end bending moments. Where there is sufficient restraint to prevent lateral buckling.

For bending about the minor principal y-axis only the in-plane requirements need to be satisfied. Clause 8. Tables to list qMsy. Tables to list qNt.

CHS and SHS are not required to be assessed in this instance as this would be covered by the interaction check of Section 8. Table and list these parameters as qNs and qMs.

Only the out-of-plane capacity needs to be considered. For a member subject to uniaxial bending about the major principal x-axis and axial tension. As noted in Sections 8. Tables and list these parameters as qNt and qMs.

Tables and list qMsy. In this section: Biaxial Bending in the absence of Axial Force 8. The example involves biaxial bending and axial compression as described in Section 8. For RHS. Table and lists qMsx and qMsy. Tables and list these parameters as qMsx. For SHS. Effective lengths: Further consideration of the use of design capacity tables for members subject to combined actions can be found in Ref.Tables and list these parameters as qNt and qMs.

Direction and level marks as well as shim and lifting hitches are inserted as required according to design information 3. For RHS bending about the x-axis. Nurul Husna. Australian Steel Institute. Consequently, the information contained in this publication cannot be readily used for hollow sections supplied from other manufacturers as those sections may vary significantly in grade, thickness, size, material Standard compliance including chemical composition, mechanical properties, tolerances and quality when compared to structural steel hollow sections supplied from Australian Tube Mills ATM.

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